Wide beam End Hall ion source EHV2.5

Anode layer ion source ALV1.0

Saddlefield ion source SFV

Wide beam End Hall
ion source EHV2.5
Anode layer ion source ALV1.0/ALV1.0f
Saddlefield ion
source SFV

1750 mm anode layer ion source

Linear anode layer ion source 1750 mm length

Wide beam End Hall ion source EHV2.5

Ion beam source Series EHV2.5 is a classic wide beam gridless End Hall ion source. It is used mainly as a tool for substrates ion beam cleaning and ion beam assisting in processes of thin film coatings deposition in vacuum.
Ion source EHV2.5 generates low energy high current divergent neutralized plasma flow with average ion energy in the range of about 60 - 200 eV, current up to 10 A and higher, and the divergence angle about 80o - 90o. Directly heated tungsten filament or gas discharge electron emitter (hollow cathode emitter, for instance) may be used as a source of electrons to ionize the operation gas and, at the same time, as ion beam space charge neutralizer. When a hot tungsten filament is used, the neutralized beam current usually is no more than 5-6 A, with a hollow cathode electron emitter it may be about 10 A and more.
The ion source EHV2.5 is supposed to use mainly in the industrial coting machines with vacuum chambers ⌀700 - 1500 mm, however may also be used in labs. It is designed for installation inside the vacuum chamber volume.

  • High current of low energy ions provide effective substrates cleaning and activation with no radiation defects.
  • Ion source EHV2.5 works with Ar, Xe, O2, N2, CH4 and other gases and their mixes.
  • No expensive adjustable carbon or molybdenum grids provides low ion source price and operation cost.
  • High temperature design materials and magnets with a highest Curie point allow long time work with no water cooling at powers about 1 kW. Water cooled options are also available.
  • An operation gas is supplied directly in the discharge volume and its losses are minimized.
  • The magnetic core upper flange is protected from hot neutralizer filament radiation with a screen.
  • Widely divergent ion beam covers a wide 3D zone of thin film deposition providing a high production rate of different PVD coating processes.
  • The typical maintenance procedures include just periodical cleaning and replacing of burnt neutralizer filaments (if used). No special tools or alignment procedures needed.
  • The design allows install two filaments, operation and spare ones. If the operation filament burns out, operator just remotely switches power to the spare filament and continues a run without vacuum chamber venting and opening for the burnt filament replacing. On practice two tungsten filaments are OK for continuous deposition run during 6 - 8 hours with pure oxygen operation gas.
  • Any End Hall ion source power supply with output power 3-5 kW may be used to power EHV2.5 ion source. However, we recommend our power supply Series IPS-3-XX-XXX.
  • Ion source EHV2.5 may be supplied with gas fittings Swagelok®, VCR®, or others.

Ion source EHV2.5 is intended for substrates cleaning and activation and ion beam assisting in the following PVD processes:

  • Resistive evaporation;
  • E-beam evaporation;
  • Arc evaporation;
  • Magnetron sputtering
  • Ion beam sputtering,

and also may be used for DLC coating deposition, ion etching, material surface modification and other surface tretments in vacuum.

Ion source EHV2.5 in a vacuum chamber Ion source EHV2.5 installed in the e-beam coating machine with vacuum chamber ⌀900 mm is shown on the left (courtesy of Precision Glass & Optics, Inc.). Exellent features, budget cost and a simple design of Series EHV2.5 ion sources allow install them in virtually any industrial vacuum coating machine and significantly improve production performance:

  • Increase thin film density and improve film adhesion even for films deposited on a cold substrate;
  • Improve thin film structure;
  • Decrease light scattering and absorption in thin films;
  • Control thin film refraction index;
  • Decrease stresses in thin films;
  • Improve coating stability;
  • Realize coatings deposition on sensitive to heating substrates.

Refraction indexes of some optical materials thin films deposited with ion source EHV2.5 assistance are shown below (courtesy of Precision Glass & Optics, Inc.):

Refraction indexes of some optical materials deposited with EHV2.5 assistance
Maximal anode current, A:
No water cooling at least to 6
With water cooling 10 and more
Anode voltage, V 40 ... 350
Ion beam divergence, o 80 ... 90
Operation pressure, Pa (for pumping speed about 2000 - 3000 l/s) 8х10-3 ... 10-1
Operating gases Ar, Xe, O2, N2, CH4 and other gases and their mixes
Overall dimensions, mm ⌀140 х 190
Weight, kg ~4.5

Anode layer ion source ALV1.0

Small anode layer ion source ALV1.0 is intended for coating deposition by ion beam sputtering in lab coating machines. This ion source generates the ion beam with 70-80 mA current in the anode voltage range 900 - 3000 V at operating gas (argon) flow about 3 - 6 sscm. The operating pressure in a vacuum chamber depends on used pumping system productivity, however even with a small pumping systems with a pumping speed about 200 l/s, ion source ALV1.0 works stable in the pressure range 8х10-3 - 4х10-2 Pa.

The ALV1.0 is a cold cathode ion beam source generating an ion beam with non-compensated space charge. Therefore it works stable with conductive targets, metal or semiconductor, grounded or negatively biased. At these conditions the ALV1.0 ion source provides metal coatings deposition rates about 2 - 3 Å/c on substrate located at distance about 70 - 100 mm from the sputtered target.

Anode layer ion source ALV1.0 beam   Anode layer ion source ALV1.0f focused beam

Ion source output aperture has a ring shape with ⌀25 mm and 1 mm width (left photo), so the ion current distribution in the beam cross-section has also a ring shape. It converts to close to Gauss distribution at distances about 50 mm from the ion source, however gets back to a ring shape at the longer distances. Due to the beam divergence an effective beam width at about 50 mm distance is about 30-35 mm.

The anode layer ion source ALV1.0f is the modification of ALV1.0 ion source generating focused ion beam with the same parameters. Anode layer ion source ALV1.0f with crossover at 55 mm distance from its aperture is shown on the right photo. Effective beam width at crossover plane is about 16 mm.

The ALV1.0 and ALV1.0f ion sources are water cooled, installed on flange ISO63. Ion source geometric parameters, focusing length, flange type may be changed to meet a custom specifications.

Small dimensions and weight, beam focusing together with high sputtering rates make this ion source an ideal tool for ion beam sputtering metal coating deposition in lab and small industrial coating machines and as a tool for ion beam figuring of precise metal optical surfaces.

Anode voltage, V up to 3000
Beam current, mA up to 80 - 100 depending on operation gas flow and operating pressure
Ion beam dimensions at output aperture, mm Ring ⌀25 х 1
Operating gases Virtually any gases excluding ones which may react with ion source and equipment materials
Operating pressures range (for argon), Pa 8х10-3 ... 5x10-2
Thin films deposition rates from a fraction of to a few Å/s depending on process geometry, ion beam current, and deposited material
Cooling Water, flow about 1 l/min
Installation in a vacuum chamber Flanged, flange from 63 mm and bigger
Overall dimensions (with no flange and no electrical, water, and gas fittings), mm ⌀59 х 45
Weight, kg 1.6 with flange ISO63

Saddlefield ion source SFV

Saddlefield ion source SFV generates narrow (output aperture ⌀2.2 mm) low current high energy ion beam. Ion source works in the range of discharge (anode) voltages up to 10 000 V with discharge current up to 10 mA. The saddlefield ion sources beam current usually is just a small part of discharge current, however due to a small beam cross-section the ion current density may be a few milliampere per square centimetre, providing technological values of a targets sputtering rates. Nevertheless due to a small beam dimensions on a target, the sputtered materials deposition rates are small (the order of tenths of an angstrom) even on located close to the target substrate.

Because there is no external electron emitter, the ion beam is not neutralized, has significant space charge, and may be effectively used just for conductive (metal or semiconductor ones) targets sputtering, grounded or negatively biased.

Ion source SFV works with a small gas flows at pressure range from 3х10-3 Pa to about 5x10-2 Pa (with a pumping speed about 200 l/s). Typical operation gases are Ar, Xe, O2, N2, CH4 and others, usually used in plasma and ion beam technologies of materials and devices processing.

Ion source SFV doesn't need water cooling. It is assembled on the stainless steel vacuum flange. The flange is custom specified but its dimensions should be like ISO63 or bigger.

The ion source SFV is an ideal tool for:

  • Lab machines for materials and devices ion beam processing;
  • Small targets sputtering, for instance, made of rare or expensive materials;
  • Thin film deposition with a low deposition rates, for instance, providing a special thin film structure or for super thin films deposition in technologically real time;
  • Thin film deposition by ion beam sputtering in a high vacuum 10-3 Pa,

and for other applications where a low target sputtering rate, low coating deposition rate, small beam dimensions and high ion energy may be advantages.

Discharge voltages range, V up to 10 000
Discharge current, mA up to 10
Ion beam dimensions at output aperture, mm ⌀2.2
Operating gases Virtually any gases excluding ones which may react with ion source and equipment materials
Operating pressure range (for argon), Pa 3х10-3 ... 5x10-2
Realized thin films deposition rates less than 1 Å/с
Cooling Without forced cooling
Installation in a vacuum chamber Flange
Overall dimensions (without flange, electrical and gas fittings), mm ⌀60 х 36
Weight, kg 1

Anode layer ion source 1750 mm length

Linear anode layer ion sources are produced with the ion beam cross section length from about 50 mm up to 3050 mm and a width about 50 - 70 mm. They are used in both lab and industry for substrates pre-cleaning and activation, for ion-beam sputtering deposition, ion beam assistance, ion beam etching, ion beam polishing and other applications based on an ion beam/plasma interaction with a matter. One of the main applications of those ion sources is an ion beam assistance of magnetron sputtering processes. Here you can see a few of our coating machines equipped with our DC magnetrons and linear anode layer ion sources.Their ion beam intensity reaches hundreds milliamperes; ions energy is in the wide range from about hundred to a few thousand electron-volts.

Anode ,layer ion source 250 mm The linear anode layer ion source output aperture is a closed slit with the width about 1 - 2 mm in the shape of elongated rectangular with rounded corners (see the picture on left - anode layer ion source 250 mm length). Therefore the generated linear ion beam has essentially non-uniform current density distrbution across the output aperture, and high uniform distribution along the ion source. The ion beam divirgence usually is about 10o - 20o and depends on ion source design and operation mode.

Anode layer ion sources are water cooled. The specially designed ion sources are produced for some special applications (for instance, high temperatures in a vacuum chamber, processes with low energy ion beam assistance or with neutralized ion beam). There are:

  • Ion sources with two water cooling circuits - anode and housing;
  • Ion sources with enhanced ion optics;
  • Ion sources with ion beam neutralizers (only for small ion sources now. Request for additional information).
Single-side ion source generates a single ion beam, double-side ion source generates two symmetric ion beams directed in opposite directions.

We supply two ion source connection options: with coaxial feedthrough and with electrical, gas and water pipes connection located on the ion source back side.

Ion source with coaxial feedthrough may be installed in any suitable vacuum chamber hole. Its position may be corrected by moving along and rotation around ion source/coaxial feedtrough axes. Coaxial feedthrough doesn't require additional electrical insulation and is electrically connected with the grounded machine frame (vacuum chamber).

Ion sources with coaxial feedthrough and a single water cooling circuit has coaxial feedthrough ⌀32 mm or 40 mm and supplied with a special design sealed flange or with Pfeiffer Vacuum flange DN40 ISO KF G1 1/2. Ion sources with coaxial feedthrough and a double water cooling crcuit has coaxial feedthrough ⌀42 or 63 mm and supplied only with a special design sealed flange.

Ion sources with water and electrical connections located on the back of ion source housing (on one side in case of a single water cooling circuit and on two opposite sides in case of double water cooling circuit) connected to the water and power supply lines using copper tubes with TEFLONTM insulation. Special design or standard vacuum flanges (for instance, Pfeiffer-Vacuum DN10 ISO-KF-G3/8 or DN16 ISO-KF-G1/2) are used .

Usually water and gas supply lines are connected to ion source tubes using push-in fittings Series LF3800 of Parker Legris ⌀6, 8, 10, and 12 mm. Please contact us if you need other gas and water fittings.

All ion sources are protected by Russian Federation patents ## 2248064, 2248642, 2030807, 2395133.

These ion sources as well as our planar DC magnetrons successfully work in United Kingdom, Hungarian, Austrian, Italian, and Russian thin film coating companies.

Example of a linear ion source Part Number to use when ordering:

IP - Ion source Planar
1 - single-side ion source, 2 - double-side ion source
C - Coaxial feedthrough, R - Regular feedthroughs
1 - single water cooling circuit (only anode), 2 - double water cooling circuit (anode and housing)
0750 - ion beam length in mm

Operation pressure: 0.008 - 0.1 Pa
Operation gases All noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrocarbons
Ion beam length from 50 mm to 3050 mm and more
Average ion energy from 60 eV to 1000 eV @ 5000 V accelerating voltage
Current density per output aperture length unit @ slit width 2 mm up to 10 mA/cm2
Ion beam current density uniformity along the ion beam +/-3%
Ion beam current to discharge current ratio no less than 1/2

VECOR 101 Duranzo Aisle, Irvine, CA92606, USA
Phone: +1-949-394-4466 * Fax: +1-949-451-6813 * E-mail: